Visit to Ford Westfield
David and Mary Lockie of Ford Westfield Farm have always been conscious that they live in a landscape prolific with archaeological features. Cropmarks and aerial photographs and historic environment maps confirm the existence of many features below ground level and it is not surprising that many artefacts have come to the surface over the years. How many farmers can point to the existence of a medieval chapel site, a Bronze Age dagger, prehistoric settlements, cemeteries, trackways, enclosures, ditches, embankments and many other features, all concentrated on their land? But this is a historic environment situated west of Ford Castle and close to the River Till and much would have happened in this spot over the centuries.
An invitation to look at some obvious cropmarks in one of the fields at Ford Westfield, led to four TillVAS members, Maureen, Alan, Allan and Antony, meeting David and Mary on 21st July on a cloudy but dry evening. The ripening barley was swaying and whispering in the breeze and a startled hare ran off at our approach. We walked across the field, running our hands through the feathery barley heads but keeping as much as possible within the tractor tracks in order not to damage the crop. Even at ground level, it was possible to see features that were made clear by the varying colours of green and yellow brought about by different depths of soil. There were obvious embankments and a distinctive ‘settlement’ in the middle of the field.
Allan had brought his drone, named Basil, and we were fascinated to see this in operation. We were impressed by the very precise way in which it was able to pan across the field at a fixed height with its camera giving detailed pictures, either as still photographs or in video format. The drone returned exactly to its take-off point but not before we had had a chance to see some of the results on a small screen attached to the controller. Later, in the farmhouse, Allan downloaded the results to David’s computer and we examined and exclaimed over the obvious signs of ancient human activity. Some of our suggestions were rather fanciful as imagination came into play and we decided to refer the results to our professional archaeologist colleagues for their assessment.
DURHAM AND DUNBAR: IDENTIFYING SCOTTISH SOLDIERS AT PALACE GREEN
Archaeology usually raises more questions than it provides answers but this talk proved that occasionally an excavation can provide a neat and tidy answer. A large audience was privileged to hear Richard Annis talk on this subject at Crookham Village Hall. Richard began his talk on a cautionary note, explaining that it would include graphic photographs of skeletal remains. All felt brave enough to remain for the talk. Richard commented that setting eyes for the first time on a skeleton in situ is always memorable to archaeologists. Sometimes the skeleton is completely intact and easily accessible. This was not to be one of those occasions! As soon as human remains are spotted during an excavation all work must come to a halt and the 1857 Burial Act comes into force. Only after a special licence has been obtained can work resume.
The various buildings surrounding Palace Green at Durham were detailed, almost a history lesson itself, in view of the various periods and purposes they represented. They included the Cathedral, Castle, old Grammar School, the Bishop’s stables, Library, buildings cut through by Windy Gap, an ancient footway through the buildings. The area to be excavated was an overgrown enclosed piece of neglected ground, sandwiched between buildings and difficult to access. Quite a challenge..... In the late afternoon of a dull and drizzly November day, bones were spotted. This was quite unexpected as it did not adjoin the Cathedral’s burial ground.
In order to understand the historical context the speaker proceeded to lead us on a whistle-stop tour of the English Civil Wars 1642-51. It was a time of violent upheaval. Few people realise that more people died in these wars than in WW1.
After Charles l had been executed and his son declared king, as Charles ll, in Edinburgh, Oliver Cromwell, leading the English army, was sent north to Scotland to prevent any movement of the Scots who were led by Sir David Leslie. Unfamiliar with the lie of the land and with Scottish tactics, Cromwell faced a much larger but less experienced army than his own. The confrontation took place at The Battle of Dunbar in 1650. It lasted no more than an hour with a victory for Cromwell who captured an amazing 10000 Scots prisoners on their own territory! So many prisoners posed a problem: this was by far too many to feed, clothe and imprison. Durham and Dunbar are 120 miles apart so moving the men south would not be straightforward. The number was reduced when he asked the people of Dunbar to take in wounded and dying soldiers who would not be capable of marching. He may also have released some on condition they surrendered their weapons and agreed not to take up arms in the future. 9000 prisoners marched over the Border where Sir Arthur Hazelrigg took over command.
By all accounts these 9000 were in very poor shape. More and more died as they marched south to Durham. Stopping overnight at Morpeth, desperately hungry, they resorted to eating cabbages, leaves and roots which poisoned their bodies and further weakened them. On arrival at Newcastle they were held in St Nicholas’s Parish Church before being sent to Durham and held in the Cathedral, now considered merely a building and no longer a religious place. So many had died en route, many from dysentery, that only 3000 remained. In Durham they were provided with better food and accommodation. Two months after the battle only a few hundred of the original 10000 had survived and men were dying at the rate of 30 per day.
The skeletons found were in a state of disarray. There was no trace of clothing and were arranged in a disorderly manner. Without exception all the prisoners were male, mainly aged 13 to 25. One third had rickets, many had scurvy, sinusitis, teeth damaged by previous illness or possibly through occupations or by smoking. Their bones had been gnawed by rats after death. Only 13 of the 28 bodies had teeth which could be analysed for geographical origin. Of these 5 were originally from Scotland, another 5 from either Scotland or Northern England and 3 from outside Britain. Their bodies indicated their lives had been spent in poverty. Radio carbon dating proved these men had died between 1625 and 1660. It was a short jump to reach the conclusion that they were indeed the bodies of the lost Scottish prisoners of war from the Battle of Dunbar.
Some of the prisoners had been sent as labourers and weavers to other parts of the country. Some were sent to work in the salt pans at South Shields, some to Cambridge to drain the fens and yet others to France and even Barbados. Possibly the most fortunate were those transported to Virginia and New England as indentured servants. 120 left these shores in the Unity for a voyage to Boston and to that country’s 1st Ironworks where they worked as tree-fellers, eventually earning their freedom. The speaker was fortunate to visit that area as part of his research where he was shown the cellar hole of the first dwelling constructed by former prisoners, who by then were marrying and raising families.
So concluded a fascinating talk on a subject unfamiliar to many of us. Next time you visit Durham; have a coffee in the new cafe built over the burial ground. Admire its recently-installed plaque and new glass roof and think of those men whose bodies had lain undisturbed for over 300 years!
An excellent website with detailed information on this historical event is www.scottishprisonersofwar.com
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TillVAS – visit to Norham Castle.
Saturday 6th May saw a group of TillVAS members meet with John Nolan at Norham Castle at the request of Dr. Glenn Foard, who gave our James IV Memorial Lecture in October 2016, and is interested in continuing investigations into the Battle of Flodden. The purpose of the visit was to try to identify any signs of cannon ball damage on the remaining walls of the castle to establish the trajectory of shot and the possible location/type of cannon used.
It was a pleasant afternoon and we set off in various directions with binoculars, and copies of plans to record any possible damage. There was in fact, considering the size of the castle, very little to find on the inside, because the walls in 15thc were very high, but there is one very distinct mark (like a sunburst) on a stone high up on the western corner of the keep. There were several other “possibles” which require further inspection. Leaving the interior, a survey of the outside also revealed a number of “probables” on the rocky foundations on the north side, which had fallen short of target. Several other features, unconnected with the purpose of the visit attracted our attention, and a report of “carved stone balls” in the river encouraged some intrepid researchers to undertake a “scramble” down through a ravine, booby-trapped with Beech mast and brambles, down to the riverside. The proper path, eventually found, was followed for quite a distance, but modern technology from an advance party (mobile phone suggesting that it was unsuitable for ladies – humph!) was discouraging enough for us to turn back. John Nolan did reach the stones and photographs were taken, but there is some doubt as to their purpose or origin.
We concluded the day with a visit to St. Cuthbert’s Church at Norham, built in 1165 at the same time as the castle and on the same site as the first church, built about AD870. St. Aiden crossed the Tweed at this point and the church was one of the resting places of St. Cuthbert’s coffin on the long journey to Durham following the destruction of Lindisfarne. The church contains an effigy of an unknown Crusader found during rebuilding and a memorial to Dr. William Gilly, Vicar of Norham from 1831 to 1855 and wrote “The Peasantry of the Borders” in 1841, in order to draw attention to the poor living conditions of agricultural labours at the time. Well worth a personal visit, but if you can’t, try the website which has full information.
Press report for the recent talk on Bradforn Kaims by Dr Richard Tipping
Dr. Richard Tipping, Senior Lecturer in Environmental Science at Stirling University was welcomed at Crookham Village Hall on Wednesday 3rd May. His subject was “People and Peat - Prehistory at Bradford Kaims” near Bamburgh. Work here is with kind permission of the farmer, James Brown and sponsored by English Heritage, the British Academy and the Society of Antiquaries in London. It has been ongoing since 2011, when Dr. Kristian Pedersen, a specialist in microliths excavated several test pits and found a great quantity of the tiny, worked flints usually inserted into shafts to make tools, indicating human occupation in prehistory. The skeleton of an aurochs was also found.
Dr. Tipping explained how the present landscape was formed by the melting ice cap,the ridges of sand and gravel (kaims) with the prominent very sharp edges and steep sides remaining. When the glaziers began to retreat, huge blocks of ice were left behind which melted gradually and formed “kettle holes” which became the lakes and climate changes caused the formation of peat and marshland.
More excavations were carried out during the following years by Paul Gething and Tom Gardener but little further evidence came to light. As much of the area was extremely wet, excavations became impossible for a time, but obtaining samples from the peat by means of cores was still an option. A drier period in 2013 allowed further work and in Trench 6, a timber platform, 1.6 m. x 9m. was uncovered. This was found to have been laid down in several phases, obviously maintained over a long period.
Cores taken from various places (Dr. Tipping had with him the “coring tool”) showed that climate changes occurred several times: marl at the bottom of the lakes was up to 2 metres deep – dry, warm period; and pollen grains indicated the presence of oak and elm woodland and other vegetation. During this time the “hunter-gatherers” seem to have settled down and became “farmers”, but there is no evidence of clearing the woodland and the fields must have been very small and close to the watersides. A short distance away from the lake, Dr. Pederson also found a hearth made of flat local stone but there was no evidence of charcoal. A process known as archeomagnetism has, however, been able to date samples of the surrounding burnt clay to 4468 to 3995BC. Adjacent to these there are several “burnt mounds” of stone, associated with troughs/pits to hold water. A wooden paddle? possibly used to remove hot stones was found lying on top of another platform, but it was in too poor a state for preservation. The exact purpose of these has not yet been ascertained, but suggestions include a sauna or sweat lodge , Indian fashion. A pit underneath one of the mounds has been dated to early Bronze age and a round-wood platform overlying a mound is possibly early Neolithic.
Further coring and other work on this project is continuing - this year from 26th June to 7th July, every day and weekends and volunteers are welcome. Contact can be made via the website: bamburghresearchproject.co.uk which also gives much more information, or to Dr. Tipping via Maureen at tillvas.com
There is still considerable work to be done at Bradford Kaims and many questions to be answered. Hopefully this year’s work will shed more light on a fascinating site leading to another visit by Dr. Tipping.
The next and last meeting until September is on Wednesday 7th June and entitled “Durham and Dunbar – identifying the soldiers at Palace Green”: to be given by Richard Annis, Senior Archaeologist at Durham University. All Welcome – Members free, visitors £4 – 7.30pm at Crookham Village Hall. As parking is limited, please allow a little extra time.
Ford Castle Visit
Members of TillVAS enjoyed a visit to Ford Castle on Friday 21st April. We would like to thank Lord Joicey for a most enjoyable visit.
Thanks also to Colin Wakeling for organising the trip, Heather Pentland and her team who provided tea and cakes afterwards and Maureen Charlton for the excellent photos
Report by Maureen Charlton on the April 2017 Lecture
The TillVAS Annual General Meeting was held in Crookham Village Hall on Wednesday 5th April with a good attendance. A special welcome was given to the President Dr. Chris Burgess who was on hand to direct proceedings preceding the election of the 2017/18 Committee.
The business of the evening was followed by a talk by Richard Carlton, Director of Archaeological Services, who wears many hats. The topic this evening was “Excavations during 2016” and he led his audience through many events, beginning with the “Routeways to Flodden”. This was initiated in the first instance by Chris Burgess and was an attempt to find evidence of the route(s) of the Scottish army from Edinburgh to Flodden Field. The only factual piece being a report of the purchase of an ox to replace a beast accidently killed by a runaway cannon in Dalkeith! Muster points used in 1496/97 during forays into England were investigated, but none produced any tangible evidence although there were a few items of medieval pottery. Several of the possible sites examined were found to be of a much later date, but a few, including Windy Winshiels could have been in existence at this time and later modified for use up to the 19th c. The condition of “roads” also had to be taken into account as very few were suitable for the huge contingent of the army and accompanying wagon-train (numbers can only be estimated) and many of the route-ways would have been merely tracks. River crossings also had to be taken into considered as few of the existing bridges would have been capable of carrying the weight of the big guns and ox teams. Many crossings would have been achieved by the use of fords, which had to have suitable access/egress – not always available. Work with Peter Ryder on ecclesiastical sites found several with grave slabs which could be associated with Flodden, ie. at Coldingham Priory, the remains of medieval chapels at Abbey St. Bathans and the still elusive St. Ethelreda’s Chapel near Yetholm which would have been on possible routes back to Scotland for survivors of the battle. There is still much work to be done, for example at Wark Castle where geophysics has shown the existence of a large cemetery not yet dated.
Another local excavation was at the 12thc Lennel Kirk, near Coldstream, where the building was in desperate need of repair and conservation. Work began in August 2016 when the interior of the building was cleared of an accumulation of rubble from collapsed walls and years of neglect, and during the next few months the outlines and doorways of the original building began to appear, including an unusual ‘grave-slab?’ incorporated into the north wall. Conservation work has now begun and should be complete by the early summer.
Also in 2016, the Peregrini Lindisfarne Community Archaeology Project began on Holy Island and adjacent coastline, with various walks, research into historic buildings and archaeological excavations. Among sites investigated were the limeworkers cottages at Cocklawburn, the Kennedy Lime Kilns and The Heugh, where substantial stone walls seem to confirm work done by Brian Hope-Taylor in 1962. Further work will take place in 2017 at St.Mary’s Church and outlying buildings, the Bastle House in St. Cuthbert’s Square, and at Common Slap near Fenham Moor. The main excavation this year, from 12th June to 2nd July will focus on The Heugh and there will be other events in June. If you are interested in taking part in this project, please contact:- firstname.lastname@example.org or check out the website.
Report by Valerie Glass on the March 2017 Lecture
It was a pleasure to welcome back Dr Chris Bowles, Archaeologist for Scottish Borders Council, to give a packed audience an update on investigations at Coldingham Priory. Chris began his talk by explaining that the site is almost unknown outside the area.
Before the priory existed, there was an earlier building. It was allegedly sited on what is now called Kirk-Hill, but is commonly called the Brugh (a corruption of Sax. burh- fort), on the headland at present day St. Abbs, separated from the world by a deep trench and a high palisade. This religious house lasted for about 40 years and was a double monastery of both monks and nuns governed by Æbbe. Aebbe was born about 615 into the royal house of Northumbria and was the sister of Oswald and Oswiu. Cuthbert is believed to have spent time there. The abbey was accidentally burnt down between 685 and 700 after Aebbe’s death but was rebuilt. It was later attacked by Vikings and there is a legend that the abbess and sisters mutilated themselves by cutting off their noses and lips rather than give themselves up. Once more the monastery was destroyed. It was deserted by the time Bede wrote about it in the early 8th century.
There remains very little to see at Kirk Hill today. It probably moved to its present location around 1100 by which time it was reformed as a community of nuns only and a great cult around Aebbe had developed. Alcock carried out excavations in 1980 and we know that there was a medieval chapel visible from the sea on the Kirk Hill site. Recent finds include cross bases. The chapel may well have been a pilgrimage chapel associated with the cult of St Aebbe. On the whole, however, the archaeological evidence is weak and even the geo-physical survey may have interpreted features which are natural as man-made.
The original name of Coldingham was Colud-ingas-ham. Bede referred to it as Colud’s Fort. King Edgar of Scotland granted land at Coldingham to the church of Durham in 1098 and a church was built shortly afterwards. Part of this building is still used as the parish church of Coldingham. In medieval times it was said that Coldingham had more guest houses than Berwick which was at that time the 2nd largest post in Scotland. The lands belonging to the monastery expanded to include a large part of Berwickshire. Several graves and skeletons have been found around the arch. A surviving wall of the original building is known as Edgar’s Wa’ although this may refer instead to a well, more likely to be considered scared than a stone wall. The priory is also the site of St Michael’s Knowe, the location of a shrine to St Michael. A legend tells of a man from Coldingham who, after experiencing visions or dreams, built a chapel at Kirk Hill which became the source of miracles. It is also said that when the relics of St Aebbe were discovered they were taken from Kirk Hill to the new priory. Berwick Naturalists Society excavated in the 1960’s and 70’s and there are good photographic records from this. More recently carved stones have been found in storage as well as burials under Edgar’s Walls.
Since the 1990’s some of the field has been sold and is no longer accessible. Friends of Coldingham Priory has been set up and extensive metal-detecting taken place. Finds include a buckle, spoon and a musket ball but these are post-medieval. Long kist burials have been found along Fishers Brae.
Finally, our speaker stated the case for Coldingham being the site of the original monastery and that it could be a multi-phase Christian site, even pre-Northumbrian. Perhaps the well-known story of St Cuthbert and the otters relates to Coldingham Sands. A Border Heritage Festival dig is planned for September 2017.
We enjoyed hearing about a place comparatively unfamiliar to many of us and appetites were whetted for a possible visit in the future. Chris Bowles provided a great deal of information for us to absorb and there is certainly more to come.
Report by Colin Wakeling on the February 2017 Lecture
Dr. David Petts, Senior Lecturer in the Archaeology Department at Durham University whetted the appetites of TillVAS members and their guests as he described the progress of excavations at Binchester Roman Fort, north of Bishop Auckland in County Durham.
The fort covered an area nearly three times greater than the much better known one at Housesteads on Hadrian’s Wall. Located by a crossing point of the River Wear, it lay on Dere Street, the important Roman highway running north from York. It also controlled access routes into the north Pennines where the Romans exploited silver and lead deposits. The site was occupied for more than three centuries from AD 80 onwards.
Its existence had been known for some while. Coins, known as Binchester pennies, had been found since the sixteenth century, but early finds were kept by the local landowners, one of whom even recycled Roman altars as pit props. Much of the cut stone from the site would have been taken for local building. Systematic excavation and recording, from 2009 onwards, has involved a large cast of ‘diggers’, including local volunteers, students from Stanford University, USA, Time Team and Durham University Archaeology Department.
Roman military engineers met their match at Binchester. Subsidence plagued barrack blocks, occupied at some stages by Spanish horsemen. Stabling areas were carefully drained. Heather for roofing material was harvested when it was at its bushiest. The main bath house, itself subject to considerable adaptation over time, still retained walls some two metres high because rising external land levels had shielded them. When it had eventually fallen out of use the baths were used as a rubbish tip, which itself revealed fascinating insights into butchery methods used on redundant draught animals.
The fort had a large civilian settlement around it. Evidence of metal and jet working has been found. Personal ornaments included rings from the Christian era. Members were given a preview of the results of the latest excavation of the mausolea in the burial area.
Report by Maureen Charlton on the January 2017 Lecture
On Wednesday 4th January 2017, TillVAS welcomed David Constantine who gave his talk on “Zoological Material in Anglo Saxon Society”. David is a Researcher and Practitioner in Medieval Archaeology, specialising in the early Medieval, Viking and Saxon periods.
He explained that bones can give a wealth of information; not only as a source of food but the lives of the creatures themselves, their use after death and environmental changes. The timescale of the ruin of a building can be estimated via the ‘floor’ of small mammal bones, deposited in the pellets of the particular species of owl which roosted and died there, until the roof timbers rotted and finally collapsed. The midden of a Roman Fort contained bones of mainly beef, the remains from the kitchens; but the drains from the latrines contained small lamb bones and chicken wing-bones, snacks eaten while ‘taking a comfort break’! Animal bones can show healed trauma after accidents, or when a domestic animal has been treated following injury, also damage caused by disease such as arthritis which apart from the initial trauma, can cause secondary problems due to additional stress on unaffected joints. Sheep were kept mainly for wool and milk and would be retained until they died a natural death, as were horses and cattle, the lack of butcher’s marks a clue. In medieval times bones were a valuable commodity, bone-workers and tanneries were often found close to butcher’s establishments, the strong long bones of the forelegs and the hoofs being especially useful. During the Saxon period there were no ‘standards’ and all shapes and sizes of tool can be found. Pins, used for fastening clothing can range from 2” to 4”, the longer ones, often curved, following the natural shape of the bone. Clay moulds have been found for mass production of pins, probably in silver. Nearer the coast where whale bone was plentiful, it is so oily it would be burned instead of wood, and some items which have no apparent use would have been symbolic or simply for adornment eg. pendants, crosses and belt buckles. Amongst the exhibits, one item of whalebone, oblong shaped and decorated, has no apparent use and is most likely to be for decoration only. David emphasised that there is no evidence whatsoever, to indicate that this was a Viking “ironing board” as has often been suggested.
Animal bone cannot exceed its normal size but fish can continue to grow bone, depending on the food supply, so that age can be estimated by the number of ‘rings’ as in the growth of a tree. Large fish bones from the Mesolithic in Western Scotland suggested that quite long sea voyages in “cockleshell” boats were undertaken to obtain big fish. Salmon fish bones have been found at York and modern techniques can now tell the quality of the river water, the time of year the fish was caught, whether it was moving up or down stream and as these were from big fish, did they perhaps use different sizes of nets, to leave the younger fish to breed?
Finds of reindeer antler, bones and claws of bears, wolves and even lynx are occasionally found in contexts outside their accepted date range suggesting that these animals existed in this country much longer than previously thought. From the Viking period, a drain was found containing a great quantity of cat bones, suggesting cat farms, purely for the fur. Found at Chillingham, there is a set of antlers from the Giant Elk, evidence of considerable climate change. Many tools can be made of both antler and bone and are especially associated with weaving.
Antler was even more valuable, being three or four times stronger than bone but fallow and roe are unsuitable, the best being from red deer. The majority of combs of various types found on Orkney were made of antler, and earlier Pictish combs were made from Viking antler. Combs were found at Bamburgh, but there was no evidence of a workshop, possibly traded from the Baltic region. “St. Cuthbert’s Comb” is made from elephant ivory! For full strength (only surpassed by metal) antlers must be shed, not cut, suggesting trade with hunters and game-keepers. Many antler tools have been discovered on prehistoric sites such as Stonehenge giving an indication of the strength of the antler. Cow and sheep horn is comparatively small and degrades quickly, but when heated becomes very plastic and after soaking can be flattened, making it useful for small window panes and lanterns, sometimes referred to as ‘lanthorns’.
This was a most interesting and informative talk and the examples of bones and associated artefacts were keenly examined with many questions.
Report by Antony Chessell on the New Year’s Day Walk, 2017
Sun, snow, hail, tussocks, mud and bogs—some not necessarily welcome but nevertheless all part of the experience for twelve stalwart TillVAS members and friends who met at Ingram Haugh for the 2017 New Year’s Day Walk. Led by Hon. Member, John Nolan, an initial steady climb up the field margins on the flanks of Reaveley Hill enabled us to see ancient cultivation terraces that were highly visible on distant and nearby hills. The continuing use of these terraces until fairly recent times was mentioned and the fact that the traditional curved turning ends of the plough lines disappeared by using steam-powered, straight drag lines across the field. The sun shone brilliantly but our boots often sank into gloop, particularly where farm traffic and animals had concentrated at field gates.
Above the highest fence line, we entered an open, prehistoric and medieval landscape of oatmeal-coloured tussock grass stretching into the distance as we reached the summit trig. point. The view may well not have changed much since the land was inhabited by our prehistoric forebears although perhaps then there was stunted tree growth across these upland slopes. There would certainly have been more signs of human occupation and activity until comparatively times and we were reminded of this as we reached the isolated, ruined Reaveley Hill Cottage with a solitary pine standing guard at the rear. The two-roomed, front cottage, built c. 1860, is still roofed although the open, staring windows, the wrecked interior with broken range and fireplace and the desolate, lean-to scullery provide a poignant reminder of a way of life which was finally ended by illness in 1951. It was also the scene of a tragedy in 1968 when a young shepherd ended his life there. The old house and byre stand in ruins to the rear and we reflected on the labour needed to quarry the stones from nearby workings and to construct these once-solid buildings in such difficult terrain. The outline of vegetable gardens could still be made out on the south-facing slopes below the cottage.
All across this landscape are dotted the shapes of many Bronze-Age burials mounds that have never been excavated and which probably still contain their stone cists and pottery beakers. This evidence was in our minds as we stepped, and sometimes stumbled, our way across the tussocks and in between these mounds to come across a mysteriously-positioned stretch of stone wall whose origins or reason for existence are unknown but which might have once marked an important boundary of some kind. Also seen were the ruins of White Well Walls, perhaps once a shepherd’s cottage although also spoken of as having been a school. And then on down to the deserted medieval village of Hartside, where the passing of time does not make it easy to distinguish the twelve or so rectangular and probably single-chambered buildings amongst the grass and bracken. This was a reminder that, although appearing isolated now, the village would have been on a well-used routeway leading to the head of the valley and linking with tracks across the hills into Scotland.
John had planned a dinner stop at a solidly-built sheepfold or stell but this involved a bit of uphill work passing an old boundary stone on the way with an old-fashioned F on one side and an R on the other. This had been placed following a boundary dispute, probably in the 18th century. The stell provided a welcome stop and a chance to examine an adjoining, impressive stone circle with an ‘altar’ at its centre. At the end of our break, there were snow flurries and the sun disappeared behind the clouds. To the north, the sky turned black with encroaching grey and white arcs associated with bands of snow or hail. The party pressed on to the east through even more tussocks and bog contouring around the northern flank of Reaveley Hill followed by a short, steep pull to gain the reward of what was described to us as a nucleated Iron Age or Romano-British settlement of many houses surrounded by an embankment and ditch; the overgrown embankment of stone and turf could still be seen clearly under the lowering sky. We then took what John described as a ‘boomerang’ route to take us back past more settlement remains to Reaveley Hill Cottage and downhill by the route we had taken in the morning.
On the way back, we were treated to stinging hail showers in between bright sunshine and a skyscape patterned with every shade between black and white culminating in a brightly-coloured complete rainbow. We returned to the car park feeling that we had accomplished something special and feeling grateful to John for his illuminating ‘lectures on the hoof’. A good start to 2017.
Report by Maureen Charlton on the December 2016 lecture
For the last meeting of 2016, TillVAS enjoyed a joint presentation by Fiona Glover and Jenny Douglas on the history of the Eyemouth Medieval Fort. Although the location of the fort was well known, very little was known of its history before work was carried out by David Caldwell in 1988. It was a “wandering” notice board, (sometimes here, sometimes there) which instigated the recent work and encouraged Fiona and Jenny to try to discover more about the fort – who actually built it and why.
The story began in 1542 with the birth of Mary, the daughter of James V, the nephew of Henry VIII, and after a break-down in diplomatic relations between Scotland and England in 1543, English troops together with Spanish and Irish mercenaries invaded the Borders under the Duke of Somerset, causing great destruction, a period known as the “Rough Wooing”. Existing records show that the first Italian style fort was built about 1548 with only one pointed bastion, but by 1551 following the Treaty of Boulogne, everything had settled down and the fort was demolished. As the situation between Scotland and England worsened, in 1557 the French troops began to rebuild the fort, making it much larger than previously with a bastion at each end and a gun battery. Vast quantities of supplies were sent to the Eyemouth, mostly by sea from Leith and Musselburgh and records show that there could have been up to 900 French soldiers in the area. By 1558 when Elizabeth 1st succeeded to the throne, this fort was deemed enough of a threat to England that the town of Berwick was ordered to be fortified at great expense, and much of this work still exists today.
Following the establishment of the “Friends of the Fort” in conjunction with the Community Town Council, access to the site was of prime importance and a great grass cutting of the area took place. Local residents and the staff of “Jus-Roll” from Berwick assisted, so that the ground plan of the Fort became visible for the first time in many years and a detailed historical report on the Fort was obtained. The University of St. Andrews became involved to advise and oversee the work. A hexacopter was used for aerial views and geo-physics was carried out to determine what remained below the surface and with the measurements then available, the overall size of the Fort became apparent. The schoolchildren became very much involved, learning to work with the computer and model in 3D Catching, also an art competition to show life in the Fort and they produced some most accomplished needlework for a wall panel.
An application was made for a grant was made to set up a Virtual Reality booth in the Eyemouth Museum which was successful, and on the “Opening Day” the Border Reivers held a “16thc Re-enactment Day” when the firing of “muskets” cause much confusion amongst the gulls and townsfolk alike! The “Friends” were invited to give a presentation at Holyrood, became involved with Historic Scotland (now the Historic Environment Scotland) and a letter of commendation was received from the RCAHMS.
A new information board has now been erected, set on a stone foundation, showing the fort as it would have been in the 16thc and which can no longer go “walk-about”!
Report by Maureen Charlton on the final event of the Flodden 500 Project
Etal Village Hall was the venue on Saturday 3rd December for the final meeting of those involved in the Flodden 500 Project. There were many familiar faces from the last four years, all listening attentively to the experts who have worked on the project since the beginning. Missing was the familiar face of Chris Burgess, the original Director of the project who was unable to be there.
We heard from Richard Carlton who continued the programme of excavations at various site across the border, and in conjunction with David Caldwell traced the Scottish “Routes to Flodden”. John Nolan described the excavation work on Flodden Hill and the surrounding area and Jenny Vaughan displayed and explained some of the various finds - the culmination of many hours of work, both cleaning and cataloguing – with a very little help? from inexperienced volunteers!
Linda Bankier from Berwick Record Office described her work with documentary research and the recruitment of the volunteers for the transcription of these, many of which had not previously been seen or associated with Flodden and a veritable ‘goldmine’ of information.
After a sumptuous buffet lunch provided by Richard and Victoria Baker from the Lavender Tearooms across the road, we were asked amongst other things, what we had most enjoyed during the project and what we considered remained to be done. High on the lists were the identification of the actual site of the battle and the finding and recording of the burial pits, which although reported more than once during the last 200 years, had never been actually identified. This was one of the original objectives – to find, record and register these as “War Graves”. The Scottish army who fought at Flodden did so out of loyalty to their Clan, their King and national pride. They died only five miles from their homeland and to misquote from “The Soldier” by Rupert Brooke, 1887-1918 – “There is a corner in another land which is forever Scotland”.
Many friends were made during the Flodden 500 Project from all over Northumberland and the Borders resulting in a network of contacts willing to help in many different ways to promote the history of this northern county which many southerners consider to be in Scotland anyway!
Report by Colin Wakeling on the November 2016 lecture
Dr Clive Waddington of Archaeological Research Services kept a packed audience of Till Valley Archaeological Society members and guests enthralled as he outlined the significance of recent excavations at a remarkable site at Low Hauxley on the Northumberland Coast south of Amble.
With the area behind the site substantially affected by open cast mining, and the coast itself under constant threat of erosion, investigation of the remaining ridge of land is a race against time. More than 30 years ago a walker on the beach noticed a stone cist or (burial box) peeping out of the sand dunes. This was followed by a sporadic archaeological investigation. In 2009 Dr Waddington was alerted to the extent of erosion by Jim Nesbitt, a local amateur archaeologist. Recent work on the site has been supported by the Heritage Lottery Fund and Northumberland Wildlife Trust, British Coal, Time Team and local schools.
Until the end of the Sixth Millennium BC Britain was joined to mainland Europe. A large basin, rather than a sea, bordered the Northumberland coast, but with a number of offshore islands and a large expanse of land, Doggerland, communication with Denmark and northern Europe was relatively easy. Could the presence of ochre mastic and scraping tools suggest the use of sealskin boats, similar to those still in use in Alaska? A Labrador ice sheet collapse and a massive underwater movement off the coast of Norway (the Storegga Slide) created a tsunami effect, raising sea levels which made Britain an island.
The site at Low Hauxley had been regularly or seasonally occupied over a lengthy period, from the Mesolithic to the Middle Ages. Successive layers of wind-blown sand had helped conserve settlement strata. From early settlers’ reliance on hunting, farming developed and then came a familiarity with metal. Several thousand flints, both recycled and ‘new’, have been recovered, burial cairns excavated and evidence of habitation identified. Although well to the north of Hadrian’s Wall, remains point to a significant period of stability and regular trade with the Roman world. The burial cairns may also have been used to site beacons to warn passing ships away from the Bondi Carr rocks.
On the beach animal and human footprints were found on top of layers of peat (once a forest floor) which were exposed when overlying sand was blown off. Shafts leading down to coal measures were originally considered as medieval, but disillusionment set in when an old postcard revealed striking miners from Amble had been doing a little mining on their own account in 1912!
The new Low Hauxley Visitor Centre will contain information on the finds which have been deposited in the Great North Museum in Newcastle. Clive’s book on the ‘dig’, ‘Rescued from the Sea’ is available from the Northumberland Wildlife Trust. Meantime volunteer walkers are regularly monitoring the site. In twenty years the dunes will have gone and with them a significant piece of our history.
Report by Valerie Glass on the James IV Memorial Lecture held on 9th October 2016 in Coldstream Community Centre
Over 80 people attended the fourth James IV Memorial Lecture at Coldstream Community Centre to hear Glenn Foard speak on The Battle of Bosworth 1485 – a Battlefield Rediscovered. This battle was fought between Henry Tudor representing the House of Lancaster and Richard III of the House of York. Glenn Foard is the archaeologist who headed the extensive survey by The Battlefields Trust from 2005-9 to discover the actual site of the battle . For many years the site was believed by historians to be at the foot of Ambion Hill and in 1974 the Battle of Bosworth Heritage Centre was built there. Subsequently, however, there was a fierce debate about whether this designation was accurate.
Glenn detailed the research which took place in order to establish the true site. Ancient maps dating from 1576 showing the assumed site were consulted to determine whether the site had “moved”. The first proper history of the battle was not written until 300 years later in 1788 by Hutton. By the present century numerous alternative sites were being mooted, some up to 6 km distant from the assumed spot.
Work began when funding became available in order to carry out the research. The Battle of Towton in 1461 was a starting point. Large numbers of finds, especially arrowheads, had been found there. Bosworth was viewed as a straightforward case. It proved to be more complex and has changed our perspective on mediaeval battlefields.
Topographical clues included the fact that Richard III was known to have been killed at Sandyford and that a marsh existed between the two sides. A ballad had been written with further references. Field names were studied, indicating several referring to marsh and bog, and a soil survey took place. A study of the fields showed that a marsh could not have existed on Ambion Hill. Local tradition held that Henry VII was crowned on Crown Hill in Stoke Golding but it was significant that before the battle the same hill had been called differently.
The speaker praised the value of local farmers’ knowledge. The tale of a combine lost in a peat bog led Glenn to undertake systematic metal detecting over a period of 3 years. The breakthrough came when lead shot was found in 2009. A single lead ball 30 mm. near the edge of the survey plus another larger one were significant finds with eventually 40 of them found. A gilt object was found where, according to the ballad, the Duke of Norfolk was killed- near a windmill. Burgundian coins and a gold ring were other finds.
It was at this point that documents were re-examined. Roman and other major mediaeval roads proved to be important features in other battles of the Wars of the Roses. Did such a road figure at a stream crossing where Richard was killed? Could Richard’s horse have been pushed back into the marsh and unable to extricate itself? These theories were proved to be more than feasible.
The point was forcibly made in this talk that “accurate location DOES matter if you want to better understand the battle”. The type of terrain can have a significant influence upon the action of the battle. The speaker believed round shot to be the key to investigating 16c battlefields. Other points made stressed that there was no time or money allocated to search for bodies in the Bosworth survey. A Visitors’ Centre should never be built upon a battlefield as it destroys the landscape. Fortunately the centre erected in recent years now finds itself 2 miles away from the rediscovered site so that is not a problem. This enlightening and stimulating lecture concluded that without metal detecting the true battlefield site of Bosworth would never have been found.
Chris Burgess introduced the speaker and Lord Joicey gave a vote of thanks.
Report by Maureen Charlton on the September 2016 lecture
Dr. David Caldwell, President of the Antiquaries of Scotland gave the first talk of the new season entitled “Archaeology of the Medieval Highlands and Islands” to a good company of TillVAS members and friends on Wednesday 5th September.
In 13thc. under Alexander III, Scotland was a kingdom divided by the “Highland Line”, the lowlands primarily occupied by the wealthy chieftains, while to the west, were the “wild and lawless” clans. Prior to the Treaty of Perth in 1266, the Western Isles were controlled by various Norse/Gaelic rulers who owed their allegiance to the Kings of Norway rather than Scotland. It was during this time that the Western Highlands and Islands became “The Kingdom of the Isles” by Charter from King Harald of Norway. Following the Battle of Largs, the Scots began to push westwards and eventually the islands became integrated into Scotland. The extent of the kingdom is unclear but it certainly included Anglesey and the Isle of Man and was ruled by wealthy chieftains on the mainland. The Isle of Man still retains the “Tynwald”, the Parliament of the island and many of the place names in the Western Isles reflect the Norse connection. The European influence can also be seen in the traditional form of the castles with a hall, causeway, keep and bailey. As the Scots moved west, they began to build defensive castles, eg. Rothsay and Dunstaffnage, with arrowslits and towers, but many of these cannot be dated or no longer exist.
Islay in particular is comparable with the Isle of Man with a possible seat of power at Finlaggan, for Council Meetings and feasting. Grave slabs on the island show images of Norse warriors and the ships (although compressed to fit the space) are similar to the familiar Viking longships, reflecting a Scandinavian society. A recent discovery on Skye is a medieval dockyard, complete with entry canal, dry dock, buildings and a tower. The Dioscese of the Isles gave allegiance to the Archbishop of Nidaros in Trondheim, and drystone churches with graveyards became the norm as at Mingary, Ardnamurchan and Aros on Mull. The houses of the people are there also, hidden in the sand dunes around the coastline and on Islay there is evidence of lead mining prior to 1229. Midden deposits at these sites show pottery from France and fruit waste, the results of trade. There was also money available, evidenced in the 1100C. Iona Psalter and the silver-gilt Iona Nunnery Hoard, all probably made by local craftsmen and of course, the famed Lewis Chessmen, made of walrus ivory, which some say must have been “lost” by traders from abroad, but are more likely to have been the property of a local chieftain and left where they were found, all illustrating the culture and quality of life at the time.
The 14th and 15thc. show an increase in wealth and culture, The Dunvegan Cup has been dated to 1493 and Queen Mary’s Harp is from the same era. There are more sculptures; art and manuscripts have survived. On Islay, a James III groat was found, the palace was in ruins and there was evidence of farming communities. The “Galley” castles around the coasts on Mull, Barra, Jura and Islay had easy sea access for trade, and roads and more houses were appearing. By the 16thc. during the reign of James VI, there is also evidence of military planning which heralded the beginning of the modern world and in 1580 citizenship was offered to the Celts and Scotland was no longer divided.
Report by Valerie Glass on a summer talk and visit, July 2016
TALK ON CULLEY BROTHERS AND THE USE OF WATERMEADOWS AND VISIT TO CROOKHAM EASTFIELD FARM
Thirty members of Till Valley Archaeological Society enjoyed this event on one of the hottest summer evenings this year. Steve Pullan from Natural England started the evening off with an interesting talk on George and Matthew Culley who had an enormous influence on agriculture in Northumberland in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Born near Darlington, they were sent by their far-sighted farmer father to be educated in the latest farming skills. They arrived in Northumberland and chose Fenton, near Wooler, as their first farm to rent. Their main aim was to increase productivity and they did this by bringing more land under cultivation and managing it more efficiently. They spent all they could afford on improving the land by soil enrichment, systematic drainage, introducing new crops and a new rotation system. A radical new feature was their introduction of water meadows.
These were already used naturally in other parts of the country prone to flooding. Where the Culley brothers stood out was in introducing them to new areas such as North Northumberland. The process involved constructing new drainage systems near a source of water and engineering methods of providing a constant flow of richly-manure water over fields. This produced an early crop of grass at key times, resulting in a higher yield of lambs. It also resulted in the production of more better-quality wool. All this was married with the introduction of the Border Leicester sheep which they bred and became highly sought after.
In a sense this water meadow system was the “high-tech” of its time and now there is concrete evidence of where they applied this method in North Northumberland. This has been obtained by study of documentation – both brothers were prolific correspondents and wrote books on their farming methods- and also by aerial photographs and examination of fields where the remains of their drainage systems survive. Chillingham, Way to Wooler and Crookham Eastfield are amongst these.
No doubt the introduction of water meadows made a significant contribution to the fame and wealth of the brothers. They went on to rent several more farms such as Crookham Eastfield, Thornington, Red House etc. Eventually they were able to purchase their own farms such as Akeld , Humbleton and Easington Grange. They travelled extensively, seeking out yet more new techniques in farming.
The phenomenon of water meadows did not last long in this part of the world, however. It was very labour-intensive and contributed to higher charges for renting farms because of an increased yield. By the 1840’s large quantities of guano was being imported for fertilising and water meadows faded away.
After the talk Tillvas members were fortunate to have the opportunity to visit Crookham Eastfield Farm where owner Andrew Joicey showed the group around. Original pipe work from the water meadows was brought out for our examination before a tour of the old farm buildings around a still partly-cobbled courtyard. Changes in farming practice mean most of these buildings are now redundant. Members of the Historic Buildings Group of the Crookham and Branxton Village Atlas Project could be seen controlling their eagerness to investigate them further ! Cameras were heard clicking away at what could be original features of sturdy stone barns, some of a huge size.
We are very grateful to Steve Pullan and Andrew Joicey for providing this insight into farming practice which revolutionised the path taken by agriculture in our area.
Report by Colin Wakeling on the June 2016 lecture
Adrian Cox from Historic Environment Scotland delivered a fast moving account of the history and archaeology of East Lothian’s Tantallon Castle to a large and appreciative audience of TillVAS members and guests.
Spectacularly sited on a cliff-fringed peninsular with stunning views across the North Sea to the Bass Rock, the Castle’s main feature is a massive curtain wall which effectively sealed off a large inner close. Its defences were so successfully adapted to changes in warfare, including the advent of artillery, that both James IV and his son, James V, despite substantial siege trains, were unable to overcome them. Even in a more ruinous state in the mid-17th Century, Cromwell’s forces took several days to force surrender on a handful of moss troopers.
Conservation and discovery on the site is on-going. Lime mortar is replacing cement pointing. Old maps and geophysical surveys have been used to identify features which might reward further investigation. Minimally intrusive small trench excavations have been undertaken, accompanied by an active programme of hands-on community engagement.
An outer ditch yielded substantial traces of General Monck’s siege ditch, including turfs laid to prevent it becoming slippery. It is a text book feature created by exponents of siege warfare who wrote the book.
The outer close, now featuring only a splendid 1000 bird doocot, was once occupied by a series of ancillary buildings, which were levelled in the 16th Century to site artillery positions protecting the Castle’s flanks.
The inner close revealed the remains of a 17th Century garden, probably created by the Castle’s last inhabitants, making their Spartan existence more enjoyable.
The lively discussion which followed revealed the depth of interest created by the presentation.
Report by Maureen Charlton on the May 2016 lecture
The TillVAS May lecture was given by Dr. Tony Barrow, a Marine Historian, and entitled “Whaling in the North East”. The whalers from the North East sailed mainly from ports between Whitby and Berwick from 1752 to about 1837 and went north to the whaling grounds in the Greenland Sea, the Davis Strait and Baffin Bay. They called in at Lerwick on Shetland and Stromness on Orkney to take on provisions and crew for what would be about a seven month voyage, from March to late October and comprised about 20% of the UK whaling fleet. This left five months for further trading eg. to the Baltic for timber, so that the fleet was not idle.
This was a shore-based industry as the “Right whale” (Baleen whale) with their exceptionally thick blubber could not be rendered down aboard and had to be divided into suitable sized chunks for transport back to shore. There was a big oil yard at Peterhead on the north east coast of Scotland. This was in contrast to the American whalers who hunted the Sperm whale in the southern seas and could process the carcass on board to return home with barrels of oil but only after what could be a three year voyage. The “Right” whales never developed a fear of man and were therefore easy prey for the crews of small boats with hand-held harpoons - the crew consisting of six men including a harpooner and steersman.
The British harpooners had learned their trade from the Dutch and Danish who had been whaling in the North Atlantic for some years.
There is a complete set of records relating to “The Disko Bay” which sailed out of Newcastle and a harpooner was paid £2/10/- for a voyage in 1786, plus 6/- per ton “oil money” and
half a guinea (11/6d) “fish money” for every whale struck. On this voyage eight whales were struck which provided 118 tons of oil. The following year only half this amount was collected. A Muster Roll for the “Sarah” built at North Shields in 1782 held in the National Archives, shows that sailors also paid 6d. per voyage to Greenwich Hospitals and were also members of the Merchant Seaman Trade Unions. 5000 from the North East were employed in British whaling ports and whalers also had protection from the marauding “press gangs”.
British ship owners were paid £2/ton to build and equip whalers for the Arctic whaling grounds several of which are known to have been built on the Tyne, including the “Lord Gambia”, “The Cove” at South Shields, “The Lady Jane” at North Shields and the “Phoenix” and “Camden” at Whitby, which were the last two wooden whalers to be built in the North East. Palmers Yard at Jarrow built three iron hulled whalers between 1857 and 1859 but they were quite unsuited to the Arctic and two sank on their maiden voyages. Whale-oil was used extensively for street lamps in Newcastle, Wooler, in miner’s lamps, churches and lighthouses; a number of which were being built at this time.
George Harrison, a whaling Captain from Hull married a girl from Berwick in 1826. He was twice trapped in ice while Captain of the “Norfolk” suffering severe frostbite and later became Harbourmaster at Blyth. John Patterson, born in North Shields went to sea aged nine, and continued for another fifty years. After being trapped by ice he saved his crew by dragging the small boats overland until they were rescued. William Scoresby and his father were the most successful whaling captains out of Whitby. He attended Edinburgh University and became the first Arctic Scientist, recording meteorological data, flora and the ecology of the whale.
By 1820/30 the whaling industry had begun to decline partly due to over-fishing; 40 ships were wrecked in 4 years and there were severe losses amongst the crews due to scurvy - despite the fact the preventatives were available, there was no requirement they should be carried aboard ship. Coal gas had also become more available and was a cheaper alternative.
Excellent images were shown of a number of paintings of whalers - some by Carmichael – at Burnmouth, Berwick; Staithes near Whitby; at Robin Hood’s Bay and Cullercoats and concluded a most informative and fascinating lecture which was greatly appreciated by the audience.
Press Report by Valerie Glass on the April 2016 lecture
There was an excellent attendance for this year’s AGM and over 50 people attended the talk afterwards in the comfort of Crookham Village Hall’s roaring fire. President Chris Burgess was warmly welcomed back after his recent illness. Although the society is only 5 years old it achieved a membership of 124 last year and already we have several new members this year. Tillvas was set up as a result of the early digs at Flodden when local volunteers were keen to develop their knowledge and skills by means of ongoing practical activities and a programme of lectures. It is a cross-border organisation having members on both side of the border and its interests comprising the catchment area of the River Till and the eastern Border lands.
John Nolan delivered an informative update on Flodden Hill work. The excavations forming part of the current Flodden Project began in 2009 and some of the early trenches were reopened last year for samples to be taken and further investigation. The samples are currently being carbon-dated. Each year has yielded new discoveries although these have often been not what was anticipated. For example a new trench in 2015 delivered at some depth 2 codd bottles marked Border Breweries Berwick which was operating late 19th/early 20th century. Obviously the ground had been disturbed in the early 20th century for some purpose.
Trench 5 on the eastern rampart of the inner enclosure on Flodden Hill revealed 3 curious stone features, possibly artificial fox-earths. Another trench nearby was riddled with animal burrows. Despite all the work carried out it has still not proved possible to date the inner enclosure.
Richard Carlton dealt with the other sites involved in the Project which included places the Scots Army had visited before the battle. Norham Castle had already provided strong evidence of some form of industry, most likely lead working and the production of ordnance. It has been speculated that this area could have been the outer ward of the castle. Compacted cobbling was also found as was a hollow-way leading to house platforms from 17th/18th centuries.
Results from Ladykirk were disappointing- features were found to be the remains of 19/20 century farm buildings. Mediaeval pottery was found on a nearby site.
At Wark a surprisingly large wall was uncovered between the site of the castle and that of St Giles Chapel.
The Flodden Project is now turning its attention to “Routes to Flodden”, the passage of the Scots army as it assembled from various parts of the country. Further work will focus on the Staw Road from West Newton to Yetholm and locating the site of St Ethelreda’s Chapel.
Richard also spoke about the testpits dug by members at Crookham and Branxton.
The audience greatly appreciated these reminders of work carried out in previous years which surely must have whet the appetite for this year’s excavations.
Report by Colin Wakeling on the March 2016 lecture
Members and guests filled Crookham Village Hall last Wednesday to hear Kristian Pedersen from the University of Edinburgh discuss Norse exploration of the North Atlantic and settlement in the Faroes, Iceland, Greenland and America. He cited fascinating archaeological evidence to support our understanding of these migrations.
Although the attack on Lindisfarne in 793 has attracted much attention, there is evidence of a Viking presence on the Shetland Islands a century or so earlier. It is possible that Norse adventurers were first invited to settle by a Pictish king to counter the influence of the kings of Dalriada, at a time when coastal lands had been depopulated following a prolonged period of stormy weather. From the Scottish islands, the Norse Vikings extended their presence into the Irish Sea and across the North Atlantic.
The majority of these seafarers came originally from the Hordaland area around Bergen and the Norwegian coastal fjords, where agriculture was at best marginal. Landless young men satisfied their wanderlust and sought opportunity to the west. The Scottish islands offered agricultural land at least as good as that of their homeland. However, unlike the Danes, who had established a centralised kingdom, which also sponsored overseas raids, Norwegian society remained relatively fragmented and controlled by local warlords.
They used trading ships (knarr) which could carry up to two tons of cargo albeit open to the elements, rather than warships. Whilst the Vikings covered large areas, theirs was not a mass migration. The settlers, generally, did not possess great wealth or power. Their society was far from equal, composed largely of tenant farmers, although powerful figures, but not commanding royal personages, did emerge. Their migrations coincided with the Warm Medieval Period which would have enhanced agricultural prospects in marginal lands.
In the early years of the 9th Century, Norse settlers began arriving in the Faroe (Sheep) Islands, possibly following earlier trade routes. Many came from Norse bases in Scotland. Their presence probably upset any Celtic monks who had already arrived in the Islands, seeking a life of quiet contemplation. The Faroes were a difficult area to occupy, but the Norse introduced livestock and established stone farm houses, very similar to Highland Black Houses, and protected by turf cladding. Present settlements in the Islands are often located on top of the earlier ones.
After the Faroes, settlers, again including many from Scotland often with their Scottish partners, moved on to Iceland which was uninhabited and offered a more productive landscape. Remains of a larger house, the likely scene of ritual animal sacrifice, have been found in northern Iceland, but in 1000 AD the Island became Christian by democratic vote. After initial success, agriculture suffered a sharp drop in productivity.
Eric the Red, exiled from Iceland, made his way to Greenland, which we assume he knew of already and established a presence in the south and west of the island. He then invited other farmers to create viable settlements. Farming remained pastoral, but arid summers necessitated irrigation systems to sustain it. A lot of materials had to be imported in exchange for trade goods. By the 15th Century, and coinciding with worsening climate conditions, these settlements had largely been abandoned.
Eric the Red’s son Leif Erikson certainly reached America where there is archaeological evidence of a Norse interaction with the Inuit from the 10th / 11th Centuries, and a settlement in Newfoundland at L’Anse aux Meadows which seems to have lasted for some 50 years before being abandoned.
There remain many gaps in our knowledge of these significant population movements and new evidence is likely to emerge to change our perceptions. Lively questioning from the audience testified to the interest the subject had aroused.
Press Report by Valerie Glass on the February 2016 lecture
There was an excellent turnout for a talk by Tillvas member Lady Caroline Douglas-Home, MBE on the Dial Knowe excavations at the Hirsel during the 1970s and 80s. It all began when a ploughman at the Hirsel spotted unusual stones when ploughing the north end of a field. The possibility of a religious site arose and the University of Durham Archaeology Department became involved. It was known that a stone coffin had previously been found on the site but details were not known. The Statistical Account of the area for 1841 also referred to great quantities of human bones having been found in earlier times. The scene was set for further investigations!
During the next few years from 1978 Professor Rosemary Cramp led various excavations and our speaker was fortunate to be able to join the team as an amateur. A team of 20 students undertook the excavations. The last excavation took place in 1984, since when an Archaeology Room has been set up at the Hirsel. There was certainly plenty to investigate with the final report amounting to over 350 pages. Balloons and light aircraft were used to photograph the site. Finds from several different periods were discovered. A palisade-type trench from Neolithic times was located, as well as pottery, flints, animal bones, hearths, a fragmented pot, door frame, roof tiles, medieval glass, over a thousand nails and several human skeletons. Quite a list!
Well over 260 graves existed. Earlier skeletons were found in shorts cists and covered by stone slabs and later ones in dug graves. Orientation of the graves varied as did the position of the skeletons. One skeleton had scallop shells indicating a possible pilgrim to Santiago di Compostella. Interesting grave goods included a buckle and a fastening pin. Analysis of bones revealed evidence of disease and injury including arthritis, TB and spina bifida in some cases. Many of the skeletons were of children and young people. There was even a mass grave but the reason for this has not been established. There were also some empty graves. Head and foot-stones were evident. Other finds included tweezers, glass bead, bangle, and a board for playing Nine Men’s Morris, numerous spurs, horseshoes, arrowheads, bell and a bell-casting pit.
A perimeter wall of the burial ground was located and a church/chapel next to the burial ground had started as a small structure about 4.5metres square. It was extended many times and the walls strengthened. The original structure has been dated to the middle of the 12th century. From the 15th century it was used for secular purposes and a small domestic structure was built over it. Further study of archives indicates that the chapel had belonged to Coldingham Priory.
Fortunately the site has now been scheduled to prevent further ploughing. However, our speaker assured us that there was plenty more to discover there. One could almost see members of the audience fantasising about wielding a trowel there in years to come! We very much enjoyed this talk, particularly fascinating because of its proximity to us.
Press Report by Maureen Charlton on the January 2016 Lecture
Despite the efforts of the River Till to cause disruption on Wednesday 6th January, the Till Valley Archaeological Society was able to begin 2016 with a talk by Dr. Chris Bowles, Scottish Borders Council Archaeology Officer.
The title of the talk “What we remember, what we forget” was thought provoking in itself. It was defined and probably well understood by those present, how objects, sites, and monuments invoke memories and feelings from the past, which during conversations can be sustained. This may not be factual as traumatic past events can sometimes be twisted by the memory so that the imagination takes over, leading to romanticism. Ruins in particular inspire mystery especially when left in their natural state. Their original use has probably been long forgotten, but subsequent events at the same place continue to prompt the memory.
Dr.Bowles mentioned Durrington Law, visible for miles around the Borders area today and now only a great vantage point, but beneath the heather there are a number of undated burial mounds, obviously a place revered in times past. Three iron-age forts overlook Durrington Law, which by medieval times was a forgotten site, but in 18th/19thc. a cross was erected on Middle Law, unrecorded and also now forgotten.
In 6th/7thc. all villages were part of Christian parishes centred on churches, but in 12thc. King David 1st of Scotland built many new churches, on top of the originals . A map of Ancrum in 1770 shows a church, now non-existent, but known as the “Bishops Palace”, the seat of the ground contains a “hog-back” grave stone and at nearby Harestanes there is a huge stone circle, overgrown and completely forgotten.
Dere Street, the Roman Road which crosses the Border line near Pennymuir follows a line of undisturbed burial cairns and small stone circles along the ridge. These were obviously respected by the Romans who quarried the stone required for the road and there is no history of any problems with the local tribes. The settlement on Trimontium has no parallel in Scotland and was also undisturbed, as the Roman Camp at Newstead was built at the foot of the hill and only a signal station has been identified on the summit. The need for the security of hill forts declined with the birth of Christianity and culture change with a more pacifist population allowed the use of the more fertile lower ground.
Dr.Bowles reminded us that Roxburgh Castle possibly contains prehistoric remains. The 12thc. castle and township became the capital of Scotland, but all was demolished in 1540. The remains can be clearly seen from Floors Castle across the River Tweed, the seat of the present Duke of Roxburgh – a reminder of times past? The remains of Hume Castle can also be seen from Manderston House. The 18th/19thc. saw the building of ‘follies’ and many medieval houses were extended to incorporate the old within the new. Sir Walter Scott is well-known for his romantic works based on the houses and history of the Borders, encouraging archaeologists to investigate further.
Reuse of ancient stones was common practise and they have been found built into the walls of early churches, field walls etc. The ‘Yarrow Stone’, a 6thc. monolith commemorating the burial place of two princes with an early Christian inscription in Latin, was used as a capstone and laid face-down over a grave containing bones. Was it just a big handy stone or was it laid face down for a reason? The cross-base presently in the garden of Queen Mary’s House in Jedburgh was moved several times from one place to another before finding a permanent home – lost, then found again. A cross from Coldingham Abbey was found in a church cold store in 1970 – found, and then forgotten about. Old Melrose and St. Cuthbert’s Chapel, a monastery founded soon after Lindisfarne and once as important as Iona, Whithorn and Portmahomack, eventually lost the pilgrim’s chapel and the monastery became a tower house. Only the chapel mound remains with three undated graves. Occasionally churches are ‘moved’ for a variety of reasons and the churchyard becomes disused as at Crailing and Lennel, where amongst the undergrowth the old gravestones still lean.
After Flodden in 1513 the March Wardens more or less cleared the Borders; monasteries, churches and villages were laid waste, leading to a return of general unrest. By 19thc. the wanton “digging-up” of remains was a popular exercise, so that much of history was lost, but present day archaeology/technology, together with historic records and memories is gradually “putting some flesh back on the bones”.
Perhaps when we visit such sites in future, we simply do some homework, ignore the rather basic ‘Information Boards’ and let our senses take over.
John Nolan's Walk Notes and Research Notes for the New Year's Day Walk 2016 from Old Bewick to Blawearie and reproduced here with his kind permission.
Copyright © John Nolan 2016
John's notes have been set out in full because of the detailed and interesting history and archaeology that attaches to every site that we visited and which he decribed to us at strategic points along the route. This was TillVAS in Antiquarian Society mode.
'Bewick' in OE means 'Bee-farm' – and bees are still kept on the moor north of Blawearie!
Earliest recorded lord of the manor is post-Conquest - Morrel of Bamburgh, Sherrif of Northumberland. He took part on Mowbray's abortive rebellion and went into exile. His estate, including the manor of Old Bewick, was granted to the prior and convent of Tynemouth. Became a member of the 'Liberty' of Tynemouth.
Holy Trinity church stands ½ mile NE. Present building is 12thC (belonged to Tynemouth monastery) with 14C alts. and restored 1866-7. Why so far away from settlement? Some A/S masonry in north wall, incl. remains of a cross, implying existence of a pre-Conquest church, but no obvious signs of settlement immediately around it. However there are cropmarks of a settlement near New Bewick to SW - excavated evidence is Anglo-Saxon, including a grubenhaus.
1253 – Henry III grants right to hold a market on thursdays, so implies some importance. Market cross was found near the church in 1874, north of the memorial to J.C.Langlands.
1292 – valued for taxation at £30.15.6d. Including a flock of 340 sheep.(Fraser 1968, 103)
1296 - Lay Subsidy Roll. Sixteen households taxable, for £17.9.2 ½d. Included Thomas the clerk, Alexander the clerk, William the sergeant, Nicholas the reeve, Richard the shepherd, John and Adam Littel, and Agnes Hund. (ibid.)
1332 - Thomas Tilli and John son of Thomas of Bewick farmed the mills of Bewick. The later mill dam/pond is visible on right of track from the hamlet to Blawearie. Mill 'lead' or leat runs east along the boundary of the improved fields.
There was a tower – certainly existing c.1514 when captained by Gilbert Collingwood, and was a 'hold' for a garrison of 40.
1539 - 'the stone tower - kept entirely for the defence of the inhabitants in time of war'. 1541 - part of the roof had been covered in lead but out off repair.
1550 - Bowes and Ellerker's survey: 'At Bewyke ys a good tower...late belonginge to the subpressed monastery of Tynemouthe. A parte therof is newley cov'ed wth lead & the other pte ys not well cov'ed nor in good repa'cons'. Recommeded to be kept in repair. Could hold a garrison of 50.
1584 - a ruin, recommended for repair. Mentioned again 1608 and 1614; last occupied c.1676. Road later built over its foundations.
1595 – Old Bewick could muster 13 tenants under Gawen Collingwood for defence.
1625 - Great Bewick and New Bewick granted by Crown (owner after the Dissolution) to private owner - Ramsey, who became Earl of Holderness. Included in the manor were properties in Wooperton, East Lilburn, and Eglingham. The Mill was worth 66/8d. Total value £56.7.0. Estate descended, through marriage, to William Delaval.
1665 - Book of Rates: Bewick Old Town, Mr. William Delaval of Dissington, £114. Ownership came into dispute and passed to Ralph Williamson who repaired the chapel
1680 – Bounds of the manor ridden, attended by 19 men form Old Bewick and two from Bewick mill.
1730s – manor passed to the Harveys, then Willam Sadlier Bruere in 1795, finally coming to the Cresswell Bakers in 1827.
Hanging Crag – As long as Hanging Crag shall stand
There'll aye be a Ha' on Bewick land
(Tomlinson 1888, 501)
Homestead. Romano-British Iron Age. Nearby is an low-banked enclosure – roughly square with a central division. Date unknown, possibly medieval or post medieval stock enclosure?
Climb the hill to gate in wall, go through, noting source of the mill lead by fenceline – go on to
Cairn. Engulfed in heather, but showing kerbstones. Probably BA.
Cross the valley of the Stock Burn, noting
Grey Mare's Crag – glacial erratic balanced on an outcrop; Corbie Crags
and vestiges of scrub woodland, prob. similar to the prehistoric landscape, based on pollen evidence fro m excavation at Blawearie cairn..
Harehope Burn – a bi-vallate fort, unexcavated. Outer ditch and bank not really concentric- perhaps enclosing and 'annexe'? Presumably late BA/IA.
Name – origin unknown though usually taken to be descriptive. Weary has been interpreted as in the sense of troublesome as in 'weary Carlisle'. Prefix Bla- is Old Norse for dark or Blar – blue. There are other Blawearies – one at Kirkbean, Dumfriesshire, another near Tranent, a farm at Huntly (Ab.) and a remote cottage near Roberton.
At least 4 phases of main building range:-
1 - the house, at the east end of the range. Possibly 18C. ?+ 'porch'.
2 - a byre/stable added on the west end
3 - a further byre abutting the west end of 2
4 - enclosed yard to the south of 3.
1828 - Old Bewick belongs to WS Bruere Esq. No mention of Blawearie (Parson & White). Nor in Pigot 1829, Wheallan 1855.
c.1860 - OS 1st ed. (surveyed 1856) where it is called 'Blowweary' and builds 1 – 3 seem to be in existence.
1865 - Earliest mention is Maclauchlan where it is called a shepherd's house. Mr. Rogerson was at one time a shepherd at Blawearie, and was present at Canon Greenwell's excavation of 'Barrow CC' (the cairn to the west).
1886 - T.F. Bulmer's Directory (p.825) has Wm Hogg, Farmer, Old Bewick and Blaw Weary, and Robert Rogerson, Shepherd, Blaw Weary.
“At Blawearie is a sheep-pen of considerable size whose walls are of solid rock some 15 feet high. On the top of this huge wall is the large and well-cultivated garden of the obliging occupier. Natural arches, winding steps, tool house and garden seats are all cut out of the solid rock.” (Rev. E.J. Wilson 1886. Eglingham, pp.7-9).
1888 - Blaw-weary, a sheperd's house, romantically perched on an outcrop of sandstone, with a sheep pen enclosed by walls of rock, fifteen feet high, and a garden, approached by winding steps cut out of the solid rock. (Tomlinson).
1893 - Berwickshire Naturalists Club visit: 'At last Blawearie itself was reached. As the heat was now very great, the fine crystal well was a welcome sight, and more so were the draughts of milk which the shepherd's wife so kindly dealt out. The view from here was charming, and all the strangers were delighted with the romantic situation of the rock-bound sheep-folds, and the well-kept garden of Mr. Rogerson.' (BNC 1893, 211).
1898 - “To the north-west (of Old Bewick) in an exposed position on a pile of rocks in the moorland, is a shepherd's house, its name Blow Weary, being very suggestive of its position”. (E.Bogg Two Thousand Miles of Wandering in The Border Country, Lakeland and Ribblesdale.1898)
1922 - revision of OS3rd edition published 1925. Shows full length of building range and outshot on north-east. (6” Sheet 25)
1935 - On the moor is the small isolated farm of Blawearie...(then quotes Rev. Wilson 1886)...The rocks remain but the garden is no longer there. (VCH 14, 425)
1940s – Military use of area. .303 cases around the farm, some rifle, some Bren gun. One cartridge case dated 1941. Bullet pocks on a rock near the rock garden.
1941 - The Rogerson collection: finds by members of the Rogerson family 'in the neighbourhood of Hebburn Moor and Old Bewick during the last 80 years, where the Rogerson family were until recently farming'. Mr. Rogerson was at one time shepherd at Blawearie...he later moved to Quarry House...and two of his sons farmed at Quarry House and Barramoor. Collection included a Borrowdale axe and a finely-polished fragment in green silurian greywacke from the southern uplands of scotland, both found at Blawearie.
(AA4, 19, 104-116 and AA 9, 40 -42).
1946 - ?Paul Brown's visit. Mr and Mrs Faill, farmers.Surely this was pre-war.
2013 The 19th century house was the home of the Rogersons, and is thought to have been abandoned before the second worls war. Names of the familiy's children are in the log books of the former school at Old Bewick. (Journal 27/72013)
Late Neo-Early BA, first dug by Canon Greenwell in August 1865 - finds incl pottery food vessels, flint knives and a jet necklace of 30 disc beads and 2 barrel beads. Re-excavated by Beckensall 1984-8, now largely a reconstruction. Four-five phases of use. Kerb enclosed rubble over a central burial pit and 5 secondary cists. About 10 satellite cairns. Paleoenvironmental remains give no evidence for arable farming nearby, suggest a part wooded part open landscape with birch, hazel and alder.
Cross moor towards improved pasture (not access land). Note earth and stone dyke, pposs. Medieval/post-med boundary.
Ascend the hill – passing 2 cup-and-ring marked rocks. 'What appear to be natural grooves and hollows in association with artificial carvings occur at OB main rock' (AA16, 45). Deep hollow-way along edge of escarpmant may be connected with millstone quarrying.
Unusual spectacle-shaped complex, defended on S by steep scarp of Fell Sandstone series. Presumably late BA-IA. Possibly one represents and extension, whole then enclosed by a 3rd rampart and ditch. Some distance beyond to north and NE are traces of a 4th line which appears to be related. Entrances on SE. Faint traces of possible huts in the western one, shallow scoops near escarpment edge are millstone extraction hollows. Small excavation in 1934. (Jobey, 43).
Pillboxes – part of the Alnwick-Wooler stop line, following the high ground and facing south and east. (Rudd, Tyne & Tweed). One facing N has been adapted – original loops for two heavy machine-guns have been narrowed to rifle slots. Note the bullet scars on the north faces – evidence for use as military training either later in the war, or even post-war. (see also AA 9, 37 and AA 10, 128)
Point out obvious millstone extraction hollow, showing chisel marks and sinkings for pinch-bars used to lever the stone out. Example of exploitation by millstone quarrying of exposures of the Fell Sandstones, running from Kyloe Hills in arc to include Harbottle Crags to Byrness Hill in Redesdale. A number of overgrown extraction hollows on plateau above Hanging Grag and west of the forts, others inside the forts, with 2 abandoned millstones. One obvious reason for this snmall-scale extraction are the documented mills at Old Bewick. Millstone quarry on Bewick Moor in 1769 mentioned by Wallis (Vol.1, 60). Maclauchlan seems to show an extraction hollow as a hut circle. BNC (BNC 22 1912-15, 369) speculated on the origin of those in OB. (AA14, 54, 61,75).
Harehope Hill millstone quarry mentioned (AA14, 75).
Press Report by Valerie Glass on the December 2015 Lecture
Jane Miller, Education Officer for the Flodden Project kindly stood in as speaker at Crookham in early December when our original speaker had to withdraw at short notice. Her subject was an overview of her responsibilities in this post: by the end of her talk we were amazed at the number and range of activities she has introduced to the young people of North Northumberland and the Borders.
Previous experience through employment at York Archaeological Resource Centre and Bede’s World equipped Jane well to develop her current post. She has found that one of the strongest motivators for children is their ability to be inspired by making discoveries in their own local area, thus developing a sense of pride in their community.
Her work covers 3 main areas – Schools, where all the children in a class are involved, Clubs, where children participate of their own choice and Workshops, where she works with a group on a specific planned topic. One of the most popular involves the children excavating a skeleton with burial artefacts in a box. A strong emphasis is placed on learning to examine and interpret the evidence available in order to draw conclusions about the skeleton’s identity and place in society. Lots of replica resources are provided for the children to handle and examine.
Northumberland schools are fortunate in having great encouragement from the county Archaeologist, Dr Chris Burgess, to take part in excavations. These have included the recent dig at Ellemford, used as a muster-point before the Battle of Flodden, and also at Wark Castle. The Annual “Big Dig” at Ford Moss Colliery always attracts several school visits with up to 90 children daily taking part. It is an ideal site for introducing them to the skills of digging, sieving and washing. Aerial photography using kites has produced some exciting results.
Working with archives also plays its part using the wonderful archives in Berwick Record Office under the guidance of Linda Bankier, the Archivist. Artefacts from the recent excavations at Marygate before the building of Workspace provided a great starting point for producing replica leather shoes.
Thanks to Jane and the Flodden project our area now has a Young Archaeologists Club taking its place amongst 70 others nationally. Ours is the sole Cross-Border club. The small informal group got off to an excellent start when Will discovered an Edward 1 coin at the end of a day’s digging! Members of the club have also taken part in the dig at Bradford Kaims with its well-preserved wooden items. They proved invaluable during the recent Test Pits activity organised for the Crookham and Branxton Village Atlas Project.
Winter usually confines activities to craft-based ones in Berwick Museum and some interesting displays have resulted.
Some members of the club have clearly set their hearts on developing their hobby into a job and have taken screen tests to appear in the Children’s TV Programme “My Dream Job”. Watch this space!
By the end of this most informative and inspiring talk members of the audience could be heard muttering, “I wish Jane could organise workshops for Oldies”. We all felt that children were very lucky to work with Jane and have such fun whilst learning.
Further info from www.yac-uk.org or email JMiller@woodhorn.org.uk
Press Report by Colin Wakeling on the November 2015 lecture.
TillVAS members and guests provided an enthusiastic audience for Graeme Young, of the Bamburgh Research Project, as he summarised the results of archaeological investigations on the Bradford Kaims site since 2011.
The site itself is some 4 or 5 miles inland from the Castle, in an area which 10,000 years ago was composed of a series of lakes that eventually drained into Budle Bay. Until relatively recently the area was difficult to cross and today it is characterised by peat bog and damp pasture land which can easily flood in wet weather.
Peat is especially valuable for archaeologists because it can preserve organic remains, such as pollen samples to give an indication of past climate and agricultural activity. Although evidence suggests there was an area of forest close to the site, there is no evidence of cereal growing in the immediate vicinity. The area was probably marginal land.
Initial peat core samples covered a period between 10 and 4000 years ago when glaciation was followed by warming and the creation of peat bog. This sampling was followed up by a series of test pits and further investigation by Hoppenwood Bank, a tongue of land dividing two areas of peat by Embleton’s Bog.
No bog bodies were discovered! However, finds uncovered have posed more questions than provided answers for the archaeologists.
A series of burnt mounds suggest a pre-historic industrial site, but are they signs of continuous activity over a period of time or a series of unconnected developments? Such mounds are usually found near sources of water and fuel, and seem to have been used for heating objects, in this case stones, some of which appear to have been brought to the site from some distance. The University of Bradford has dated hearth stones, set into hard fired clay, to 4200BC. Spoil heaps suggest the production of ‘hot stones’. These may have been used to heat water for beer brewing or providing hot water for a ‘sweat room’, not unlike a sauna.
A rough and ready exercise in experimental archaeology produced home-made barley beer which, whilst it would not win prizes for palatability, at least poisoned no one!
Within the peat, areas of brushwood matting, apparently deliberately laid down, were uncovered. Were they used to enable access across boggy ground? No simple answer presents itself.
And what was the wooden single-bladed ‘paddle’ used for; to help carry ‘hot stones’? This was only one example of pre-historic timber working found on the site. Were the hollowed tree trunks, apparently vertically set into the peat, primitive sumps to enable the collection of purer water?
Timber, brushwood and rubble mounds creating raised areas may have provided access out into the fenland; for fishing perhaps?
The evidence uncovered so far is more complex than first thought. Many questions remain unanswered and Graeme is sure more intriguing discoveries lie ahead. Investigations on the site will continue next summer in June and July and more information can be found on the team’s website (www.bamburghresearchproject.co.uk). Members’ questioning afterwards even suggested yet more lines of enquiry!
Press Report by Maureen Charlton on the “JAMES IV MEMORIAL LECTURE”.
On Sunday, 11th October in Etal Village Hall, Max Adams, author, historian and archaeologist, gave the TillVAS “James IV Memorial Lecture” to a capacity audience.
By way of introduction, Max described Britain as it was in the 5thc, with a number of “kingdoms” ruled by self-styled “kings” – in the north, Goddodin, Strathclyde, Deira and Bernicia, with Rheged to the west. Although boundaries have changed, geographical features can still be easily identified. Britain at that time was a brutal place of kill or be killed; the many battles, if not due to petty rivalries were for the acquisition of land and a way to reward warriors with plunder to keep a battle-force in the King’s pocket. In 604, Aethelfrith defeated Dal Riata, the finale of a long-running war, causing that kingdom to become another tributary to Bernicia, and consolidating his position as overlord of North Britain.
Oswald Iding, born 604, eldest son of Aethelfrith, King of Bernicia and Deira, was overlord of North Britain. His wife Acha was the daughter of Aelle, King of Deira, who was deposed either by Aethelric (Oswald’s grandfather) or Aethelfrith himself. Acha had two brothers, Edwin, the eldest, therefore became an atheling without a homeland, a free-lance warrior and of great interest to Aethelfrith, who attempted to have him killed on several occasions. The tables turned however when in 616 Aethelfrith was killed at Bawtry in East Anglia by Raedwald, with whom Edwin had taken refuge. Edwin therefore reclaimed the two northern kingdoms for himself, but Acha, fearing for herself and young family, fled to Dunadd, in Dal Riata for safety.
King Edwin brought Christianity to the North and he and his family were baptised by Bishop Paulinus, followed by a mass baptism in Yorkshire and at Edwin’s new palace of Yeavering in Glendale. This is described in detail by the Venerable Bede in his Ecclesiastical History and excavations by Brian Hope-Taylor in 1950/60s confirmed the existence of the “palace”. Bede also wrote “There was a great peace in Britain wherever the dominion of King Edwin reached….” However, in 632, Edwin was killed in battle near present day Hatfield, along with his son, by the combined forces of Gwynedd and Mercia, led by Cadwallon and Penda, who during the following two years ravaged Bernicia and the northern kingdoms. Edwin’s family and Paulinus were forced to flee to Kent for safety.
Oswald and his brother Oswiu had been growing up in Dal Riata where they had kin, training to be warriors, and being a sea-board kingdom, they would have become familiar with the use of boats. They had also been tutored by the community headed by Columba on Iona, who had a great influence in the area, had been baptised and become thoroughly Irish. It may be that the monks thought to send Oswald home to set up a “daughter house” in Northumberland at Lindisfarne. By 632 Oswald would have become a skilled warrior and had already earned himself the nick-name “Flashing Blade”.
No doubt fully aware of the situation in his homeland, Oswald sought assistance from Dal Riata to recover his kingdom of Bernicia and it was likely that he used the Solway as the easiest route south, there obtaining horses and moving east along the Tyne Valley to where Cadwallon had set up camp near Corbridge. Arriving at a place near to present day Heavenfield just north of Corbridge, Oswald had a vision of St. Columba and interpreted this as an omen of success. As a result, according to Bede, a cross was set up and the whole war-band promised, after the battle, to accept the faith and be baptised. Cadwallon was apparently ignorant of the impending clash, possibly due to local sympathies lying with Oswald. The battle supposedly took place at Denisesburn, now identified as Devils Water near Corbridge where Cadwallon was killed. Oswald had no difficulty regaining control of his kingdom of Bernicia, so in the following year, 635, he sent for Aidan, an Irish monk from Iona to convert Northumbria to Celtic Christianity, and established a monastery on Lindisfarne, followed by others at Melrose, Hartlepool and Coldingham. During the following years, Oswald embarked on a capital revolution. Funded by tribute, he began to gift lands and treasure to churches and his warriors; cemeteries and townships appeared and trade links were established across to Ireland.
In 642, Oswald, a battle-hardened commander of repute at the height of his powers, and with a following of elite warriors, died on a battlefield somewhere near Oswestry, in a campaign against Penda of Mercia and a King of Powys. Such was the slaughter, none of his close companions survived to retrieve his body, which “on the orders of the king who slew him” was dismembered and displayed on stakes, thereby depriving the Bernicians of the accustomed funeral rites. Oswald was succeeded by his brother Oswiu who in 643 went back to Oswestry to bring back the body parts presumed to be those of Oswald. Several unexplained mystical events were associated with the area around the battlefield, including visions and healing. Oswiu collected “arms”, which were interred at Bamburgh and a “head” was given to Lindisfarne. A skull, reputed to be that of Oswald was found in St. Cuthbert’s coffin. The last time this was opened by Canon Greenwell in 1899, the fragments of the skull were examined in detail, and showed clear signs that its owner had been felled by an edged weapon, leaving a huge gash across the brow. Such was his renown, various other “pieces” of Oswald can be found in many places on the continent. Oswiu followed in his brother’s footsteps and despite several incursions by Penda and others, survived until 670, aged 58.
Much of the history of the time was recorded by the Venerable Bede, one of the greatest of early historians, who wrote “the stability of a kingdom depended on land, warriors and defence, but most importantly, knowledge.”
As a bonus to a most successful afternoon, it was with great pleasure that we welcomed our President, Dr. Chris Burgess, and Nevenka, “on leave” from hospital where he has been recovering after taking ill earlier this year. He spoke for a short while, expressing his appreciation of the multitude of cards and messages of goodwill he had received during this time. We look forward to seeing him again in the near future.
Press Report by Valerie Glass on the September 2015 lecture
THE LIMESTONE INDUSTRY ON HOLY ISLAND - TALK BY Roger Jermy
There was an excellent turn-out for our first meeting of the new season at Crookham Village Hall when Roger Jermy gave a most interesting talk on the above subject. His book on the subject was first published 23 years ago and is now approaching “Collector’s Item” status. Roger’s interest in old railways began when he spotted unexpected ridges across fields – the remains of old tracks- and his interest in the limestone industry when he encountered the white cottages on Holy island. His interests have led to a detailed knowledge of both in North Northumberland.
The limestone industry on Holy Island goes back many years. We learnt of monks in the 14th century digging our lime probably for building purposes. At the end of the 18th century coal was discovered on the island and it is possible that limestone quarrying had taken place sporadically for some centuries.
The uses of lime include as disinfectant and for agricultural use. Its commercial use was the instigator of the construction of the first lime kilns on the island. Limestone was burnt with coal and the lime raked out at the bottom. Working with lime was a hazardous and unhealthy occupation and the cause of many deaths. Islanders suffered from skin problems, burns and eye infections. Horses pulling wagons were asphyxiated from the fumes.
The first lime kilns were built near natural springs away from the village. By the 1840’s St Cuthbert’s lime works opened, encouraged by the Lord of the Manor, Mr Selby. Initially limestone from the northern beaches was used with imported coal. In 1846 the license was leased to 2 local men, Mr Gibson from Belford and Mr. Lumsden from Mousen and it was they who built the first waggonway, unfortunately ploughing through the ancient settlement of Greenshiel in the process. The remains of several of the waggonways can still be seen. A clue is provided by the bright green appearance of the grass where wooden sleepers have retained moisture. A short jetty was built near St Cuthbert’s Isle for boats transporting the lime to places such as Dundee, Druridge and Whitley Bay. A smithy for maintaining the waggons is shown on the 1860 OS map.
Mr Nicoll of Dundee later took over the license, making a bad start by mistakenly building new kilns on common land. He went on to build a new tramway on the eastern side of the island from Nessend Quarry on the northern shore down to Castle Point. This now forms a popular walk along the shore. Another two jetties were built for boats unloading coal which was then transported to new kilns built shortly after 1860. Mooring rings for boats can still be found fixed into the rocks near these old and rapidly deteriorating jetties.
The closure of the lime-works saw a decrease in population on the island from the 1880’s. Most of the lime-workers were not islanders, however, who continued to ply their fishing trade. Many of the lime-workers had come from Scotland and Ireland. Up to 50 men were employed at one time. But by the 1880’s fewer workers were needed when the lime industry began declining. It simply could not compete with other lime works on the mainland which now took advantage of the railway for transporting lime which was much quicker than transporting by sea.
The kilns were used for the last time in 1900 by island farmers after commercial production had ceased. They have been extensively restored and are now very well-preserved. They are in the care of the National Trust.
One mystery that Roger would like to solve is the purpose and origin of the chimney shown below the castle near the kilns on a painting. This is all part of the detective work he has undertaken in his investigation of the lime industry.
The talk provided a stimulating and informative beginning to our new programme.
Press Report by Maureen Charlton on the July 2015 Lecture
For the final meeting of the TillVAS 2014/15 season, Mark Hall’s talk, “Killing Kings” compared the deaths of Richard III and James I of Scotland, and began with a quotation from the Bible - “A King today is a corpse tomorrow”.
Richard III was killed at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485 and had been on the throne for only two years. His body was taken to Leicester and buried without ceremony in Grey Friars Monastery, and it was the search for the remains of Grey Friars which became “The King in the Car Park”. It was indeed a remarkable set of circumstances which eventually produced the proof that this was Richard III. This year, following a funeral more befitting a King of England, his remains were entombed in Leicester Cathedral.
The death of James I was actually a murder, as opposed to a battle fatality. Born in 1394, the youngest son of King Robert III, he spent 18 years as a hostage in France as his father refused to pay his ransom, before ascending the throne in 1424. An accomplished, educated man, he introduced social, economic and legislative reforms, founded the University of St. Andrews and the Scottish Court of Sessions. He married Jane Beaufort, who was, unusually crowned with him at Scone Palace.
Due to his austere policies, by 1437 several nobles led by Walter Stewart, the Lord of Athol, finally rebelled and gained access to his lodging at Black Friars Monastery in Perth. Hearing the commotion, James attempted to escape by pulling up floorboards and dropping into a vaulted culvert beneath. Unfortunately, only a short time previously he had caused the entrance to this tunnel to be blocked up as his “tennis balls kept rolling in”. Despite the efforts of Queen Joan, he was caught and killed. Details of an eye witness account were recorded by John Shirley. Once recovered from her wounds, the Queen had those responsible hunted down and after prolonged torture, they were finally beheaded.
James was interred at Perth Charterhouse, a Carthusian Monastery where his wife was also buried. His embalmed heart was taken by the Hospitallers on pilgrimage to the Holy Land but they only reached Rhodes, and it was returned to the Priory in 1433. Records for 1430 and 1440 show that a payment of £48.10.5d. was allowed annually for the care of his tomb by the Carthusians. The building was destroyed in 1445 by Protestant Reformers and nothing now remains above ground. His clothes were kept privately for some time but they also disappeared during the Reformation.
There are presently no plans to find the site of the Carthusian Priory in Perth, so it is highly unlikely that there will be repeat of the amazing discoveries in Leicester.
Press Report by Valerie Glass on the June 2015 Lecture
Unfortunately the talk planned for this meeting could not take place due to the speaker being unavoidably called away. However, we were fortunate to obtain the services of Martha Andrews who came to the rescue at very short notice and gave a wonderfully-inspired talk on “Norham – the most dangerous place in England”. It is difficult to imagine a more enticing title and we were pleased to see members turn out in their strength to hear Martha’s entertaining and informative talk which was beautifully accompanied by photographs of Norham from different viewpoints through the seasons.
Norham owes its significance to its position on the River Tweed as a long-established fording place for many centuries. Until the mid 19th century there was also a ferry, the only way of crossing the river before the present bridge was built. St Aidan crossed the Tweed by the ford on his journey from Iona to Lindisfarne. The first church was built after this during the 7th century, replaced later by a stone one. Our archaeological appetites were whetted when Martha spoke of the need for a geophysical survey – if only......!
A monastery followed the erection of the first church with St Cuthbert’s body passing through the village when monks from Lindisfarne attempted to keep it safe from marauding Vikings.
Reference was made to the sometimes confusing situation of Norham being part of North Durham until 1844. Norham is, of course, renowned for its magnificent castle under which lies an Iron Age fort. The original castle would have been built of wood, a motte and bailey, as defence against the Scots in 1121. It proved incapable of withstanding attack by David who succeeded in destroying it not once but twice. It was rebuilt in stone in 1165 and that is what we can still see today.
The church holds the distinction of having the widest span arch of any Norman parish church in England. It was at Norham that John Balliol, having been chosen by Edward 1 to be King of Scotland, paid homage to Edward.
The medieval plan of the village still survives with long narrow burgage plots behind the houses even though these may have been rebuilt or replaced many times. The oldest house dates back to the 1700’s.
Norham is associated with the story of William Marmion, a knight from the south, presented with a golden helmet by a lady who told him to travel to Norham – the most dangerous place in England- and to let the helmet be seen there. He joined Sir Thomas Grey, captain of Norham Castle, in repelling the Scots. The version which is better known, however, is that by Sir Walter Scott who transferred the characters to the time of the Battle of Flodden 200 years later.
The castle’s huge beehive oven has partially survived with its stone turned red by the heat. Masons’ marks are still visible on the walls and one window was turned into a ducket for rearing pigeons for food. It is possible the castle was even plastered and painted on the outside.
In 1497 James 1V brought the canon known as Mons Meg to Norham in order to lay siege to the castle but he was unsuccessful. In 1513 the outer wall was destroyed by the treachery of a groomsman who let the Scots inside. He was hanged outside the village.
After Berwick returned to England in 1482 Norham declined in importance. Yet it has continued to provide a wealth of stories including that of the Rev Robert Lamb in Victorian times who married a girl who brought a teapot with her to their first meeting: they went on to have a happy marriage and the teapot still survives! Then there is Canon Gilly and his campaign to improve housing for the hinds, Charlie-the church clock, Piper Laidlaw VC, the founding of Ladykirk Church, the Blessing of the Nets and bombing during WW2. There is certainly no shortage of stories from Norham!
In conclusion Martha informed us that another description was given to Norham by Beatrice Potter who holidayed nearby and referred to it as “a dirty little town where every tenth house is a public”. We preferred the title chosen by our speaker!
We were very grateful to Martha for stepping in at short notice to offer this illuminating talk much enjoyed by our members.
Press Report by Heather Pentland on the May 2015 Lecture
Having launched the Heritage Lottery funded Village Atlas project of Branxton and Crookham, TillVAS members and friends welcomed Professor Sam Turner of Newcastle University and his colleague David Astbury to the meeting held on 6th May. They discussed the latest methods used by archaeologists to map the landscape.
In the past, studying the landscape has meant keen observation plus the use of maps and aerial photography. By such methods many archaeological features have been identified. However, such methods have their limitations. Rig and furrow and fragile earthworks are often obscured by modern farming methods such as long term rotation ploughing and a trend towards larger fields. Features can also be completely hidden by trees.
Aerial photography helps to identify features but being two dimensional it has disadvantages. The new source of information is LIDAR. It is a remote sensing technology which measures distance by the use of lasers. This aerial scanning of the landscape creates a digital elevation which finds landscape features which would otherwise be lost and actually detects some features which have never been seen before. It also helps to stratify features which helps with dating. Archaeologists are finding LIDAR incredibly useful as a huge amount of data and information has become available – not only to the specialists but also to amateurs as the Environment Agency has made all the surveys it has done available to members of the public.
However, LIDAR is only the beginning. For the best results a three dimensional map is built up using a combination of sources of information such as maps, documentary evidence, local knowledge and Google Earth in conjunction with LIDAR. Then all this information can be manipulated by using a computer and GIS (Geographic Information System) which enables the reader to read and analyse map data. For instance the angle of the view and the direction of the light on the map can be changed. Shadows can be brought up which allow different aspects of the landscape to be highlighted. Then all this combined information must be examined methodically which is a pains-taking and time consuming process – but it is well worth the effort. A huge number of previously unknown prehistoric sites have been discovered in South Northumberland using the above method.
Sam and David had a special treat for us – LIDAR maps of Branxton, Crookham and Etal. The audience were invited to identify some of the features. The use of local knowledge came into its own with local resident, Tom Turnbull, able to identify such features as a long gone duck pond and the original course of the Pallinsburn before it was straightened.
It was a full house with a fascinated audience who reacted with great enthusiasm as they recognised the opportunities available to them via LIDAR. Professor Turner and David Astbury were thanked for a brilliant talk and for, very kindly, offe
Press Report by Maureen Charlton on the April 2015 Lecture
Following the TillVAS AGM on Wednesday 1st April, Chris Burgess gave a talk on “A Tale of Two Castles (or two castles, one fortification and one artillery bastion). In conjunction with his investigations into the Battle of Flodden, Chris was seeking evidence of the attack by the Scots on Norham Castle in 1497 and using a geophysics team from Glasgow University in 2012, several anomalies were identified. In the spring of 2013, three trenches were opened across the site which uncovered complex archaeology. One area of high response produced tiny globules of lead, indicative of possible lead working/casting. There was medieval domestic refuse, including spindle whorls of stone and ceramics, unfinished arquebus balls and a shrapnel ball. Between 1314 and 1525, Henry VIII invested heavily in Norham Castle, rebuilding it for artillery use. Metal detecting produced shot within range of the castle, and there was shot damage on the wall facing the Scots army across the river. More metal detecting is planned and the island in the river with a ford on either side will be included. Earlier investigations of the castle found evidence of pre-Roman occupation, possibly Saxon.
Ladykirk (Church of Our Lady) was built about 1503 by James IV supposedly following a vision of the Virgin Mary after he fell from his horse in the Tweed. The Church is supported by massive buttresses, more in keeping with a defensive building, and although demolition in the interest of Border security would have been politic, such a move would have been unacceptable. Geophysical anomalies proved to be the remains of farm buildings (confirmed by locals) and the pantiles amongst the demolition rubbish were 18th C., although there were medieval deposits below. Spoil from a nearby rabbit hole produced a 2” cannon ball (out of context), probably the chainshot usually found on board ships in the 15th/16th C, but also used on land
In 2012/13, work continued at Flodden around the battlefield area. Again using geophysics as guidance, five linear trenches were opened near Branxton Steads on yellow clay, so hard that a pick actually bounced off. During the night of 10th September 2013, a deluge of rain left these trenches full of water. After pumping out as much as possible, the previously rock hard strata had softened to the consistency of soft butter, which could explain the predicament encountered by the Scots army in 1513. A geophysical anomaly on a ridge nearby proved to be a burial pit for farm animals in deep sand for farm animals – very easy digging – and it was later confirmed that cart loads of sand for building purposes had been taken from the site in the past.
Field walking on the Kings Chair, produced a lead “sunflower” stud, still showing traces of red enamel from a horse’s bridle, and a tiny lead alloy shield with a loop of a type normally found on reins with the owners crest. Both these items implied “status”. At the foot of Flodden Hill, a copper alloy peg was found, identified as a leg from a tripod for burning incense. Some account books relating to the reign of James IV show that he more or less bankrupted his realm to travel in style. His personal camp was recorded as “ decorated with gold thread”. Anything like this would of course “disappear” after the battle in 1513. Prior to 2011, an unfinished cross guard from a medieval knife and various other items including a lead ingot indicated medieval metal working on Flodden Hill. Also found was the central boss from a small shield. Evidence of the passage of the English Army was found to the north east of Branxton Village and near the Monument including a Tudor button, a small cross, a Henry VII half groat and other high status items.
At Wark Castle in 2014, geophysics was again used, but some features proved to be natural, although there is the possibility of a “roadway”. A small jumbled wall was found to overlie a much bigger wall and this will be further investigated this year. There was a huge collection of medieval and earlier pottery, metal work and a silver buckle, possibly Saxon, and the head of a crossbow bolt. The outer ward with the defensive wall is also scheduled for investigation this year and it appears that Wark Castle was more extensive than previously thought.
Chris concluded by outlining his plans for this year’s excavations on Flodden Hill by extending the 2014 work, which had hinted that the fortifications cover a much bigger area.
Press Report by Maureen Charlton on the March 2015 Lecture
At the TillVAS meeting on Wednesday 4th March, Richard Carlton, a Director of Archaeological Services Ltd., described how an evaluation exercise on the site of the old Neptune Shipyard on the River Tyne produced a great deal of information about the industrial history of Tyneside. As the area in question was adjacent to the Roman Fort of Segedunum, it was thought there may be evidence of a Roman ficus.
The 1859 1st edition O.S. map showed a railway on this site, but in aerial photos taken between 1940 and 1980 the area was covered by a huge shed. However, when the evaluation work began in June 2013, there was nothing at all in most of the trenches except a deep layer of clay, but going deeper in trench six a short section of wall was discovered. Further work below where the shed would have been uncovered a paved area of recycled bricks with timbers rammed into mud, but it was known that a brickworks did exist in the area. Next to be uncovered was a wooden trackway which definitely was not Roman and the Archaeologist for Tyne and Wear, Les Turnbull was consulted. Documents were found which showed the area was part of the Carrville Estate (part of Wallsend) where there were a number of coal pits. These explained the tracks which would have been used by horse-drawn chaldrons (wagons) to carry coal to the colliers in the river for onward transportation to London and elsewhere. The upper rails of the tracks were made of beech, while the inner were birch and pine. The inner rails appeared to retain the compacted rough stone trackbed around the sleepers, which would give additional purchase for the horses. The width of the track was 4ft.81/2ins., and is the oldest example of a standard guage railway ever found. This precise width is thought to be the width of a horse’s behind!
Images were shown of the tracks which included the main way, a siding and a leet, which was eventually determined to be a drain to take water away from a “washpool” in the siding which lay at a slightly lower level than the mainway. A washpool was necessary to cool the wheels of the wagons which could actually have caught fire in dry weather due to the friction on the wooden rails on the incline down to the river. In documents discovered and dated about 1771 it was ordered “that he shall cause the empty wagons through water places, the penalty to be three pence for every neglect”. It is recorded that there were up to 252 return journeys/day or 32/hour and 275 working days of 8 hours. Images were also shown of the manner of descent down the incline to the staithes, the weight of the wagon allowing the load to coast gently downhill, controlled only by the driver and brake with the horse tethered behind, while the return journey was a normal uphill haul. The washpool was quite shallow and only a short stop would be required. Several angular pits with shuttering were also found adjacent to the leet and it is thought probable that boys were employed to dampen the rails with buckets of water. The washpool showed no sign of repairs and apparently had a relatively short life as the wooden wheels of the chaldrons were replaced by iron about 1807 and the siding was over-ridden by the main way. Covering the leet was a 5 metre long recycled ship’s timber and a document was found dated 11th February 1765 from a Will Brown, “directing Capt. Snowden to seek out ship’s timbers from Cuckold Point” which was in London. Many of the sleepers of the trackway were recycled timber and several of the original pieces, still showing large peg holes, dowels and trenails from the ships, have been recorded and taken to York for preservation.
Notebooks and drawings from John Buddle, an engineer who lived nearby at the time have provided a great deal of information about these works, which must have been one of the greatest civil engineering projects of the age, and would have required a huge investment of cash. The various waggonways changed hands several times - the Bigges Main became Kenton and Coxlodge, then Willington, Killingworth Waggonway and in 1811 Wallsend Staithes.
George Stephenson and the invention of the steam locomotive saw the demise of the horse drawn waggonways, but it was these old wooden trackways that set the standard guage of the modern railways.
Press Report by Maureen Charlton on the February 2015 Lecture
Robin Kent, a Conservation Accredited Architect, was welcomed by TillVAS at the meeting on 4th February when he spoke on "The Conservation of Ruins". He explained that the UK has a rich heritage of monuments and a long tradition of caring for them - castles, pele towers, abbeys and churches, old mills etc. Thousands have been given protection since the Preservation Act of 1979 became law, but many are still unprotected.
The four main aspects of the conservation process are the degree of ruination, investigation, intervention and use. Many buildings are stone-built, but both brick and concrete buildings can also be conserved. The reasons for ruination are varied, from fire damage; the theft of lead from roofs, as at Elgin Cathedral; military activity on the Otterburn Ranges; and disuse. Once a building loses its roof, the weather takes its toll, followed by the growth of vegetation which caused extensive damage at Thirlwall Castle near Haltwhistle. The castle had been built using stone robbed from nearby Hadrian's Wall, which in turn was used as a convenient "quarry" for field walling. During conservation work a number of oviously Roman stones rescued from the field walls were rebuilt into the castle! Ivy tendrils push stonework apart and overgrowth is subject to windblow which can completely collapse a wall. The taproots of trees act like crowbars and where these cannot be completely removed, have to be poisoned.
The investigation of a building entails much documentary research, inspection of the current condition and the removal of damaging vegetation. This is followed by painstaking recording of all aspects, including the position of bird's nests and bat roosts which are protected by law. Surveys of plants and lichens are also carried out and, at Thirlwall, lichens were identified on the Roman stones which could have existed since the building of Hadrian's Wall. Geological surveys can show reasons for collapse, i.e. underground streams and, in the Western Isles, burials beneath the walls of ruined churches have been found to be the cause of collapse.
Intervention is intended to stabilise the building in its present state. Conservation necessarily begins at the top, and various methods of wall-capping have been tried. The best reults have been achieved by "soft-capping" over lime mortar. Turves of short grass are laid on the wallheads and ledges, which continue to grow, allowing the wall to "breathe" naturally and surplus rainwater drains off rather than in. This was extremely successful at Dunollie Castle near Oban with no further deterioration apparent fifteen years later. At Thirlwall it was necessary to build new footings and a pier to support a buttress and, in North Uist, a replacement doorway was inserted where the original plans indicated its existence. Collapsed windows also needed restoration to support the wall above. Only lime and clay mortar is used and, as Roman stones have particularly long "tails", open joints are permissable in this case.
Subsequent inspections are carried out at five year intervals and where the building is riifless, weathering can occur both inside and out, so that mechanical access is required. The intention is to leave the building looking natural and part of the landscape. Ruins can still be put to good use as viewpoints and landmarks - Haggeston Dovecot, Brizlee Tower and the Chantry House in Alnwick. Dryburgh Abbey in the Borders is a popular venue for weddings. A number of properties have now been restored for permanent occupation and, in Scotland, there are comparatively very few still available for such work.
A new list of photographs of Branxton have been added to the archives.
See Archaeology News for information about our dig at Mardon
Congratulations to Ford School! See 'Village Atlas News' for details or follow the link to the Berwickshire Advertiser for more details. http://www.berwick-advertiser.co.uk/news/heritage-heroes-are-the-first-in-england-1-4519447
ADVANCE NOTICE OF 2017 SUMMER EXCAVATION
Some very good news!
Please click on Archaeology News, above
FLODDEN 1513 WEBSITE
This website continues in a new format and is being kept up-to-date with information about the battle, the ecomuseum, the 41 sites on the network and much more. Please click on the Links page, above, in order to access the site. There is also information about 'The Way Ahead' on the Archaeology page, above.
The Society has an extensive collection of documents and photographs held in its secure archives. These are invaluable for members wishing to study the local history of the area or wishing to gather information for e.g. the Village Atlas Project. Please click on the tag above to see the catalogues. Anyone wishing to access the archives should contact the Society's Archivist, Maureen Charlton or the Assistant Archivist, Julia Day.
MEMBERS' WRITTEN CONTRIBUTIONS
Please see a new section on the website—click on the appropriate tab above. Please let us have your thoughts, in prose or in verse.
BRANXTON & CROOKHAM VILLAGE ATLAS PROJECT
There are some important meetings of the Activity Groups scheduled over the next few months. Please click on the appropriate tag above, which will take you to the Village Atlas page and give you all the dates, times and places of the meetings.
ALL MEMBERS OF THE LOCAL COMMUNITY, TILLVAS MEMBERS AND MEMBERS OF OTHER ATLAS GROUPS ARE ALSO WELCOME TO ATTEND ANY OF THESE MEETINGS (except the Steering Committee).
Please click on the Latest Newsletter page to see information for the current month.
PREVIOUS LECTURE AND OTHER REPORTS
Click on Reports on Events, above, for detailed accounts and press reports.
The Society operates a bookstall at all its meetings.
Items for sale include:-
1. The Society's first publication Breamish and Till: From Source to Tweed at £10 per copy and
2. Vivian Wilcock's Andrew Todd 1844-1908 ( with research input by TillVAS members) at £5 per copy.
See the Publications page for more about these books. Copies of Breamish and Till are also available in Cornhill Village Shop and the Lavender Tea Rooms and Village Shop in Etal.
There are also archaeological books and journals for sale. Net proceeds of sale go to TillVAS funds.